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马太效应  

2014-10-23 20:34:10|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  马太效应(Matthew Effect),是指好的愈好,坏的愈坏,多的愈多,少的愈少的一种现象。来自于圣经《新约?马太福音》中的一则寓言。

  1968年,美国科学史研究者罗伯特·莫顿(Robert K. Merton)提出这个术语用以概括一种社会心理现象:“相对于那些不知名的研究者,声名显赫的科学家通常得到更多的声望即使他们的成就是相似的,同样地,在同一个项目上,声誉通常给予那些已经出名的研究者,例如,一个奖项几乎总是授予最资深的研究者,即使所有工作都是一个研究生完成的。”

  此术语后为经济学界所借用,反映贫者愈贫,富者愈富的现象。现实中就是指,只要获得了每一点成功,就会产生累积优势,使之有更大的机会获得更卓越的成就。马太效应也是造就贫富差距的原因之一。

    “ 25:14 天国又好比一个人要往外国去,就叫了仆人来,把他的家业交给他们。

  For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods.

  25:15 按着各人的才干,给他们银子。一个给了五千,一个给了二千,一个给了一千。就往外国去了。

  And unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey.

  25:16 那领五千的,随既拿去做买卖,另外赚了五千。

  Then he that had received the five talents went and traded with the same, and made them other five talents.

  25:17 那领二千的,也照样另赚了二千。

  And likewise he that had received two, he also gained other two.

  25:18 但那领一千的,去掘开地,把主人的银子埋藏了。

  But he that had received one went and digged in the earth, and hid his lord's money.

  25:19 过了许久,那些仆人的主人来了,和他们算账。

  After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them.

  25:20 那领五千银子的,又带着那另外的五千来,说,主阿,你交给我五千银子,请看,我又赚了五千。

  And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents more.

  25:21 主人说,好,你这又良善又忠心的仆人。你在不多的事上有忠心,我把许多事派你管理。可以进来享受你主人的快乐。

  His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.

  25:22 那领二千的也来说,主阿,你交给我二千银子,请看,我又赚了二千。

  He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other talents beside them.

  25:23 主人说,好,你这又良善又忠心的仆人。你在不多的事上有忠心,我把许多事派你管理。可以进来享受你主人的快乐。

  His lord said unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.

  25:24 那领一千的,也来说,主阿,我知道你是忍心的人,没有种的地方要收割,没有散的地方要聚敛。

  Then he which had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed:

  25:25 我就害怕,去把你的一千银子埋藏在地里。请看,你的原银在这里。

  And I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, there thou hast that is thine.

  25:26 主人回答说,你这又恶又懒的仆人,你既知道我没有种的地方要收割,没有散的地方要聚敛。

  His lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I have not strawed:

  25:27 就当把我的银子放给兑换银钱的人,到我来的时候,可以连本带利收回。

  Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury.

  25:28 夺过他这一千来,给那有一万的。

  Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which hath ten talents.

  25:29 因为凡有的,还要加给他,叫他有馀。没有的,连他所有的,也要夺过来。

  For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath.

  25:30 把这无用的仆人,丢在外面黑暗里。在那里必要哀哭切齿了。

  And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”


       为什么要拿回第三个仆人的银币,因为他埋藏银两,白白地浪费了可以运用的机会,是个不称职的仆人------真是“又恶又懒”。
       中国道教的老子说:“天之道,损有余而补不足。人之道则不然,损不足以奉有余。孰能有余以奉天下,唯有道者。”(苍天的常理是用富余的去补足缺失的,而人的常理却不是,是以不足的去满足富余的,谁能以富余去满足天下,就是得道的人。)
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